This week President Obama said that every military activity must consider the so-called global warming crisis.
The brass is directed to “incorporate climate change impacts into plans and operations and integrate DoD guidance and analysis in Combatant Command planning to address climate change-related risks and opportunities across the full range of military operations, including steady-state campaign planning and operations and contingency planning.”
By David Tulis / Noogaradio AM 1240 FM 101.1
Indeed, the war on climate change affects the highest levels of government and under President Obama is public policy. But the U.S. deep state is ahead of the public pronouncements, having for decades experimented with the weather and reorganized weather. It has done so by methods of energy projection such as the HAARP program and by jet-delivered aerosol emissions for purposes not revealed to the public nor to the equities and financial markets. Weather modification, also called solar radiation management, is a program in progress today over the skies of Chattanooga and Hamilton County, according to visual observation.
So far this year treatments with aerosol-spewing jets occurred Jan. 1, 3, 5, 11, 14, 19, 23 and 27, and also Feb. 2, 3 and 5. Some days the sky is entirely natural, as it was yesterday, Feb. 8.
The best indications are that the material used in the program is a white powder that comes dirt cheap to the government from the coal-burning utilities that produce millions of tons of coal fly ash every year. The official sun-enhancing and sun-altering pollution over Hamilton County is euphemistically called CCR, or combustion coal residual. It is toxic, and contains aluminum, arsenic and other pollutants, according to J. Marvin Herndon, a scientist in San Diego who does not rely on government funding for his research.
The TVA coal-fired plant at Gallatin produces 130,000 tons of coal waste daily. It is in the news this week for bringing on line its last of four selective catalytic reduction devices to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions in Middle Tennessee. TVA has spent three years and F$730 million on the project. Earlier scrubber projects have taken care of reducing fly ash emissions. Nearly half of fly ash production is recycled, with some evidently being purchased by government agents for the current stratospheric aerosol geoengineering program I have covered here since April 2014.
Below are excerpts from a report on the feared health effects of aerosol geoengineering published Jan. 19 in Environmental Health. It concedes nothing as to any actual geoengineering work taking place in the sky today. Nevertheless, it gives a serious and science-based warning about the perils of injecting the air we breathe with pollutants in the name of a vague federally ordained “war on climate change.”
The study is by Utibe Effiong and Richard L. Neitzel, “Assessing the direct occupational and public health impacts of solar radiation management with stratospheric aerosols,” Environmental Health, Jan. 19, 2016. http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/116844/12940_2016_Article_89.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
A few excerpts, with footnotes omitted, italics added and headings altered. — DJT
Excerpts from study on geoengineering
By Utibe Effiong and Richard L. Neitzel
Geoengineering is the deliberate large-scale manipulation of environmental processes that affects the Earth’s climate, in an attempt to counteract the effects of climate change. Injecting sulfate aerosol precursors and designed nanoparticles into the stratosphere to (i.e., solar radiation management [SRM]), has been suggested as one approach to geoengineering.
Although much is being done to unravel the scientific and technical challenges around geoengineering, there have been few efforts to characterize the potential human health impacts of geoengineering, particularly with regards to SRM approaches involving stratospheric aerosols. This paper explores this information gap. Using available evidence, we describe the potential direct occupational and public health impacts of exposures to aerosols likely to be used for SRM, including environmental sulfates, black carbon, metallic aluminum, and aluminum oxide aerosols.
We speculate on possible health impacts of exposure to one promising SRM material, barium titanate, using knowledge of similar nanomaterials.
We also explore current regulatory efforts to minimize exposure to these toxicants. Our analysis suggests that adverse public health impacts may reasonably be expected from SRM via deployment of stratospheric aerosols. Little is known about the toxicity of some likely candidate aerosols, and there is no consensus regarding acceptable levels for public exposure to these materials.
There is also little infrastructure in place to evaluate potential public health impacts in the event that stratospheric aerosols are deployed for solar radiation management. We offer several recommendations intended to help characterize the potential occupation and public health impacts of SRM, and suggest that a comprehensive risk assessment effort is needed before this approach to geoengineering receives further consideration.
*** The concept of geoengineering is not new, and dates back to at least 1965. However, the term geoengineering as applied in its current context was introduced in 1977. Geoengineering approaches include solar radiation management, or SRM, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR) SRM techniques attempt to offset effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations by reducing the proportion of incoming short wavelength solar radiation that is absorbed or reflected by the earth’s atmosphere. *** Proposed SRM techniques include stratospheric aerosols, reflective satellites, whitening of the clouds, whitening of built structures and increasing plant reflectivity.
All SRM deployment techniques require a global approach since localized deployment will not produce sufficient effects. Importantly, SRM approaches to managing climate change require initial and ongoing addition of aerosols to the atmosphere, with increasingly greater additions as emissions of GHGs rise, given the risk of sudden and potentially catastrophic warming if aerosol levels are not maintained. ***
This paper will focus on SRM via stratospheric aerosol injection, and will describe potential direct human health impacts. We explore three knowledge gaps: 1) human exposures, 2) human health impacts, and 3) exposure limits. ***
Stratospheric aerosols for use in SRM
A wide range of particles could be released into the stratosphere to achieve the SRM objective of scattering sunlight back to space. Sulfates and nanoparticles currently favored for SRM include sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, black carbon, and specially engineered discs composed of metallic aluminum, aluminum oxide and barium titanate. In particular, engineered nanoparticles are considered very promising. The particles would utilize photophoretic and electromagnetic forces to self-levitate above the stratosphere. These nanoparticles would remain suspended longer than sulfate particles, would not interfere with stratospheric chemistry, and would not produce acid rain. However, while promising, the self-levitating nanodisc has not been tested to verify efficacy, may increase ocean acidification due to atmospheric CO 2 entrapment, has uncharacterized human health and environmental impacts, and may be prohibitively expensive.
Human exposures to materials used for SRM could occur during the manufacture, transportation, deployment and post-deployment of these materials . In this paper, unless otherwise stated, inhalation is the primary route of exposure considered. ***
Airborne sulfate exposures have been shown to range up to 23 mg/m 3 in sulfuric acid plants. Additionally, high exposures to sulfuric acid fumes have also been noted in the petrochemical industry, and high exposures to hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide have also been noted in natural gas extraction operations. Exposures to black carbon during its manufacture can be quite high.
Elevated airborne exposures to aluminum and its oxide have been shown to occur during aluminum refining, smelting and at aluminum powder plants. There appears to be no available documentation of occupational exposure to barium titanate. In addition to manufacturing settings, exposures to SRM materials could occur during deployment, e.g., during cloud seeding operations, as well as from accidents during transportation.
Occupational exposures to SRM materials are likely to occur over brief periods (e.g., days to weeks), with the potential for repeated or cyclic exposures. The health effects of such exposures will therefore likely be acute in nature, though repeated exposures create an opportunity for chronic health effects. Occupational exposures may be attenuated through the use of engineering controls such as ventilation, as well as the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as respirators and protective suits.
Due to atmospheric circulation and gravitational deposition, large-scale population exposures to atmospherically-injected SRM materials will almost certainly occur after their deployment. Population exposures could also occur through ingestion of food and water contaminated with deposited particles, as well as transdermally. Unlike occupational exposures, there has been virtually no research done to estimate ground-level personal exposures to SRM materials, though the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does provide guidance on methods for evaluating environmental exposures to several possible SRM materials. *** The intentional addition of black carbon to the atmosphere will exacerbate adverse health effects already resulting from unintentional release at ground level . ***
No models appear to have estimated the potential global burden of environmental aluminum, alumina or barium titanate that might result from SRM. In contrast to occupational exposures, population exposures to SRM materials will be continuous and prolonged over months to years, but will likely be orders of magnitude lower than those experienced occupationally. Thus the health effects will be primarily chronic in nature. The use of PPE to reduce personal exposures to deposited SRM materials is not feasible on a population scale.
*** Aluminum is never found free in nature, and instead forms metal compounds, complexes, or chelates including aluminum oxide. Aluminum and aluminum oxide do not appear to differ in toxicity. Wheezing, dyspnea, and impaired lung function, as well as pulmonary fibrosis, have been noted in workers exposed to fine aluminum dust. Dilation and hypertrophy of the right side of the heart have been seen in workers exposed to aluminum powder, as have decreased red blood cell hemoglobin and finger clubbing. Helper T-lymphocyte alveolitis and blastic transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in the presence of soluble aluminum compounds in vitro were found in an individual exposed to aluminum dust. There is limited evidence of carcinogenicity among workers; the few existing studies have been confounded by concurrent exposures to known carcinogens, (e.g., tobacco smoke or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)
No regulatory standards
For public exposures – which would likely be widespread following SRM efforts – the EPA, European Environmental Agency (EEA), and World Health Organization specify regulatory standards for ambient air quality. *** Exposure limits differ substantially between these agencies, but, more importantly, there are currently no limits set by any of these agencies for most of the substances that may be used for SRM. ***
Need for extra-national global authority
In order to be effective, SRM efforts involving stratospheric aerosols will require a global effort. Such an action would represent the first truly global and intentionally-produced human exposures, and because the benefits and potential consequences of this action would impact the entire population of the planet to some degree, we make the following initial recommendations. *** We recommend that subsequent cost-benefit analyses for geoengineering explicitly consider health impacts of SRM. Assessments should further compare the expected health benefits that may result from SRM efforts to potential adverse health outcomes, including (but not limited to) those described here.
ii. Further research is needed on methods of assessment of exposures to, and evaluation of toxicological properties of, potential SRM materials. *** Since exposures will inherently be global in nature, exposure limits must be harmonized to ensure that individuals around the world are given equal protection from adverse health effects. Global harmonization of standards related to SRM represents an immense but necessary bureaucratic and scientific challenge, and an important step towards establishing a formal governance framework for geoengineering.
SRM has been identified as a potentially technically feasible and possibly cost-effective method of geoengineering to reduce or reverse anthropogenically-driven climate change. But even as much is being done to unravel the scientific and technical challenges around geoengineering, and there is substantial evidence that a host of adverse human health effects will directly result from climate change, very little has been done to describe the potential human health impacts of this emerging disruptive technology. *** [C]urrent knowledge gaps do not justify deployment of SRM in the short term. We therefore recommend further research, a more inclusive analysis of costs and benefits, as well as the globalization and harmonization of regulatory standards that will limit the negative human health impact of SRM.
— David Tulis hosts a talk show weekdays in Chattanooga from 9 to 11 a.m. on 1240 AM Hot News Talk Radio, covering local economy and free markets in Chattanooga and beyond. Support this site and his radio station in Chattanooga, on your smartphone via the TuneIn radio app or at Hotnewstalkradio.com. Back David by noisily patronizing his advertisers. Encourage the free press by having him air your commercials. Also, “buy me a coffee at the tip jar.”